Linux is a free and open source, monolithic, Unix-like, operating system kernel originally developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991. By extension, the term also refers to full operating systems that combine the Linux kernel with a set of software in order to provide a complete working system. These so-called Linux distributions usually bundle GNU tools, which led to the combination also often being called GNU/Linux.

Operating systems such as Android and ChromeOS are also based on the Linux kernel; however, they are not usually considered Linux distributions due to the large differences in their architecture as compared to a conventional GNU/Linux system.

Distributions[edit | edit source]

Linux distributions are operating systems that bundle the Linux kernel together with other common software, including an implementation of init, system daemons and user applications. While most distributions offer the same basic Unix tools, they often differ in their overall focus and purpose, which impacts the choice of bundled application software or settings. Unlike most other commercial operating systems, Linux distributions in general are also highly modular and the used package management solution makes for another key difference across various distributions.

Overall, most Linux distributions can be organized into several groups:

List[edit | edit source]

Debian and derivatives[edit | edit source]

Ubuntu and derivatives[edit | edit source]

Fedora, Red Hat and derivatives[edit | edit source]

Arch Linux and derivatives[edit | edit source]

Gentoo and derivatives[edit | edit source]

Mandriva and derivatives[edit | edit source]

Slackware and derivatives[edit | edit source]

Others[edit | edit source]

GUIs[edit | edit source]

Here provides a list of GUIs that can be used on Linux.

Desktop environments[edit | edit source]

Various desktop environments offer unique appearances, icon themes, different ability of customization, and many more. A user can switch from one to another by downloading them from the default package manager provided.

Standalone window managers[edit | edit source]

Unlike desktop environments, standalone window managers are only software that controls the appearance and position of windows within a windowing system.

  • awesome
  • Blackbox
  • BSPwm
  • CTWM
  • dwm
  • Fluxbox
  • FLWM
  • FVWM
  • Herbstluftwm
  • i3
  • IceWM
  • JWM
  • LeftWM
  • Notion
  • Openbox
  • PekWM
  • Qtile
  • Window Maker
  • Xmonad

External links[edit | edit source]