Ubuntu

Ubuntu
Distribution of Linux
Ubuntu logo.png
Ubuntu22.10-Desktop.png
Ubuntu 22.10 desktop
Architectureamd64, i386 (formerly), ARM64, armhf, ppc64el, s390x
Release typeFixed
Initial version
Latest versionUbuntu 22.10
Initial release20 October 2004
User interfaceGNOME, Unity (formerly)
Package managerAPT (modified)
Terminal
SKUs
Desktop, Server
Based on
Debian
Status
Active

Ubuntu is a distribution of Linux that was started in 2004 by Canonical Ltd. Unlike many other Linux distributions, Ubuntu is designed for use as a desktop OS and currently owns the third largest market share on operating systems.

The Ubuntu system is built on the Debian infrastructure.

Versioning[edit | edit source]

Ubuntu uses a date-based version scheme, where the major version is the year of release, and the minor version is the month padded by a zero if necessary. Each version also has a codename consisting of an adjective and animal name both starting with the same letter, which since Ubuntu 5.10 follows alphabetical order. For example, Ubuntu 9.10 was released on 29 October 2009, The "9" in the name represents 2009, and the "10" represents October (as October is the tenth month of the year).

Two Ubuntu versions are released each year, one in each half of the year (usually in April and October). The first release in even years is an LTS release supported for 5 years, which can then be extended for additional 10 years via the paid Extended Security Maintenance program. Other releases are referred to as Interim releases, and are only supported for 9 months, after which it is recommended to upgrade to a newer version. As of 2022, Ubuntu 6.06 is the only version of Ubuntu to be released in a month other than April or October.

Flavors[edit | edit source]

The standard Ubuntu desktop uses GNOME; however, there are alternative variants called flavors, which are optimized for different desktop environments or use cases. Unlike regular derivatives, Ubuntu flavors are officially recognized by Canonical, make use of some of its infrastructure and commonly only use Ubuntu stock repositories.[1]

Name First Last Notes
Kubuntu 5.04 Uses KDE Plasma and KDE Software Compilation
Edubuntu 5.10 15.04 For use in education
Xubuntu 6.06 Uses the Xfce desktop environment
Ubuntu Studio 7.10 For use in multimedia production
Gobuntu 7.10 8.04 Strictly uses free software only; made obsolete by a setup option with the same effect in regular Ubuntu
Mythbuntu 7.10 17.10 Ubuntu with the MythTV media center
Kubuntu Netbook Remix 9.10 10.10 Kubuntu optimized for netbooks
Kubuntu Mobile 11.04 11.10 Kubuntu with the KDE mobile environment
Lubuntu 11.10 Uses the LXQt desktop (LXDE until 18.10)
Ubuntu Kylin 13.04 Designed for the Chinese market
Ubuntu GNOME 13.04 17.04 Used the GNOME desktop; discontinued when Ubuntu discontinued Unity
Ubuntu MATE 15.04 Uses the MATE desktop, which itself is based on GNOME 2
Ubuntu Budgie 17.04 Uses the Budgie desktop
Ubuntu Unity 22.10 Uses the Unity desktop

Timeline[edit | edit source]

Name Code name Release date Support end date ESM end date
Ubuntu 4.10 Warty Warthog 20 October 2004 30 April 2006
Ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog 8 April 2005 31 October 2006
Ubuntu 5.10 Breezy Badger 13 October 2005 13 April 2007
Ubuntu 6.06 LTS Dapper Drake 1 June 2006 1 June 2011
Ubuntu 6.10 Edgy Eft 26 October 2006 25 April 2008
Ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn 19 April 2007 19 October 2008
Ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 18 October 2007 18 April 2009
Ubuntu 8.04 LTS Hardy Heron 24 April 2008 9 May 2013
Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex 30 October 2008 30 April 2010
Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope 23 April 2009 23 October 2010
Ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala 29 October 2009 30 April 2011
Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx 29 April 2010 30 April 2015
Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat 10 October 2010 10 April 2012
Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal 28 April 2011 28 October 2012
Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot 13 October 2011 9 May 2013
Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin 26 April 2012 28 April 2017 26 April 2019
Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal 18 October 2012 16 May 2014
Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail 25 April 2013 27 January 2014
Ubuntu 13.10 Saucy Salamander 17 October 2013 17 July 2014
Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Trusty Tahr 17 April 2014 30 April 2019 25 April 2024
Ubuntu 14.10 Utopic Unicorn 23 October 2014 23 July 2015
Ubuntu 15.04 Vivid Vervet 23 April 2015 4 February 2016
Ubuntu 15.10 Wily Werewolf 22 October 2015 28 July 2016
Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Xenial Xerus 21 April 2016 30 April 2021 23 April 2026
Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak 20 October 2016 20 July 2017
Ubuntu 17.04 Zesty Zapus 13 April 2017 13 January 2018
Ubuntu 17.10 Artful Aardvark 19 October 2017 19 July 2018
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Bionic Beaver 26 April 2018 26 April 2023 26 April 2028
Ubuntu 18.10 Cosmic Cuttlefish 18 October 2018 18 July 2019
Ubuntu 19.04 Disco Dingo 18 April 2019 23 January 2020
Ubuntu 19.10 Eoan Ermine 17 October 2019 17 July 2020
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa 23 April 2020 23 April 2025 23 April 2030
Ubuntu 20.10 Groovy Gorilla 22 October 2020 July 2021
Ubuntu 21.04 Hirsute Hippo 22 April 2021 January 2022
Ubuntu 21.10 Impish Indri 14 October 2021 July 2022
Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy Jellyfish 21 April 2022 21 April 2027 21 April 2032
Ubuntu 22.10 Kinetic Kudu 20 October 2022 July 2023
Ubuntu 23.04 Lunar Lobster April 2023
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Current stable version
Latest preview version
Future release

References[edit | edit source]