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OS/2 1.0 is the first version of OS/2 to be released. Announced on 2 April 1987, OS/2 1.0 was marketed to be a successor to DOS, providing its own set of protected mode API library and taking advantage of the 286 processor capabilities. Later released on December 1987, IBM OS/2 1.0 targeted IBM's new line of PS/2 model systems, while maintaining compatibility with IBM AT-compatible systems.

Due to a Joint Development Agreement from IBM and Microsoft in August 1985, Microsoft would develop OS/2 1.0 with IBM, but Microsoft's releases were marketed towards OEMs. OS/2 1.0 was praised for its modern capabilities such as the segmented memory model and multithreading, but was criticized for the lack of 386 processor advantages and unstable DOS application support, and sold poorly to the user market. It was succeeded by OS/2 1.1 on 31 October 1988.