Distribution of Linux
Latest versionAndroid 12.0
Initial release23 September 2008
User interface

Android is an operating system based on Linux produced by Google that targets smart, portable and/or embedded devices such as phones, tablets, smartwatches, televisions, or cars. Android was originally developed by a company called Android Inc., but Google then bought the company in July 2005, then made the Android SDK available in November 2007. One year later, the first version of Android was released in September 2008. Every major Android version since 1.5 until 10 had a codename based on different desserts, and they are all in alphabetical order.

In January 2020, Microsoft released the first preview of their custom Android experience meant to run on the Surface Duo, build 2020.117.2.

In June 2021, Huawei released the first version of HarmonyOS 2.0, meant to be run on Huawei devices, build (based on Android 10.x).

Timeline[edit | edit source]

The codenames are named after desserts, similar to how Ubuntu's codenames were named after animals.

Version Codename(s) Release date Notes
Android 1.x Astro Boy, Bender, Petit Four, Cupcake, Donut 23 September 2008 HTC Dream was the first phone to be released with Android.
Android 2.x Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread 26 October 2009 Supported more screen resolutions.
Android 3.x Honeycomb 22 February 2011 This version was targeted at tablets only.
Android 4.x Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean, KitKat 18 October 2011 First version to integrate the screenshot feature.
Android 5.x Lollipop 12 November 2014 Introduced a new design known as Material Design.
Android 6.x Marshmallow 5 October 2015 First version to support USB-C and fingerprint sensors.
Android 7.x Nougat 22 August 2016 First version to have multi-window support.
Android 8.x Oreo 21 August 2017 First version to have picture-in-picture support.
Android 9.x Pie 6 August 2018 Minor design updates.

First version to have time limits for apps.

Android 10.x Quince Tart (internal), Q (public) 3 September 2019 First released version to not publicly use a dessert codename.

Added dark mode.

Android 11.x Red Velvet Cake (internal), R (public) 5 September 2020 First version to support foldable devices.
Android 12.x Snow Cone (internal), S (public) 4 October 2021 Introduced a new design known as Material You or Material Design 3.