Start menu

Start menu
Component of Microsoft Windows
10240-Start.png
Start menu in Windows 10 version 1507
Type
Introduced inWindows 95
Last included in
ReplacesProgram Manager
Replaced by

The Start menu is a user interface element used in Microsoft Windows and other operating systems that provides a central point for accessing basic operating system functions such as power options and settings, as well as launching programs and viewing recently open documents.

History[edit | edit source]

Development[edit | edit source]

Prior to the introduction of the Start menu, Program Manager offered similar functionality using an MDI window. The peculiarities of Windows 3.1 window management meant that the program manager window would often get lost behind other windows, requiring the user to minimize multiple windows in order to launch an application. The program itself also suffered from its rather complex interface, with some common tasks such as exiting Windows being hidden in confusingly named menus.

Microsoft aimed to fix this problem with a new desktop metaphor user interface originally planned for Cairo and later ported to Chicago. An initial design tested in 1993 included a tray with the System, Find and Help buttons -- each exposing a part of the base operating system functionality in a menu. Applications could be launched by browsing the "Programs" directory on the desktop, which was similar to the Windows 3.1 experience. The design further evolved in the following months, resulting in a single menu that combined the three menus and the Programs folder into a single interface.

Classic start menu[edit | edit source]

The classic Start menu introduced with Windows 95 was a single column menu with a banner showing the operating system's name on the left side, which contained power options and shortcuts to help as well as submenus for settings, programs, and documents. This menu style could be customised by modifying the \WINDOWS\Start Menu (Windows 9x) or %USERPROFILE%\username\Start Menu (Windows NT) directory. Windows 98 later improved the menu to feature transitions upon being opened. Even after the Start menu was redesigned in Windows XP, this Start menu style was retained in Windows until Windows 7 build 6469.

Start panel[edit | edit source]

The Start menu was redesigned in Windows XP builds starting with build 2250 to feature a two-column design. The left column included links to the user's frequently used and pinned programs, as well as shortcuts to the machine's default internet and email program. There was also an "All Programs" menu for the user to access all programs installed on their computer. The right column featured quick links to folders such as Documents, Pictures, Computer and Network, as well as recently opened documents. On the bottom were power options, and on the top was the user's account name and picture.

Windows Vista updated this menu design to include an inline scrollable menu for the All Programs menu, as well as the removal of the icons on the right column. The Connect To and Printers items could no longer be expanded, and it was no longer possible to press the Shift key after opening a program to keep the menu open. Later, Windows 7 removed the links to the user's internet and email programs, changed the design for the power button and introduced Jump Lists for the pinned Start menu items.

Start screen[edit | edit source]

Windows 8 completely removed the traditional Start button, and introduced the Start screen, which used a tile interface similar to Windows Phone. It completely removed the links to common folders, as well as the user's recent documents and frequent applications. The background and accent colour for the Start screen could now be customised, and tiles could be organised into groups which could be named. Windows 8.1 Update 1 later improved the Start screen by adding Search and Power buttons to the top-right corner, and added a context menu when right-clicking on tiles.

Because of Redpill, early builds of Windows 8 had their Metro components disabled including the Start screen. It can be enabled using various tools such as RedLock and Metro Unlocker with the other Metro components. The first Windows 8 build that has Start screen enabled out-of-the-box is Windows 8 Developer Preview. Starting with Windows 8 build 8128, Redpill was integrated to OS and Start screen can no longer be disabled.

XAML Start menu[edit | edit source]

Windows 10 re-introduced Start menu as an XAML-based taskbar flyout. The left side of this new menu included links to frequently-used applications, as well as user folders. The right side featured a similar tile design to the Start screen, however the menu could be put into full-screen mode, resulting in an experience similar to the previous Start screen. In Windows 10 Anniversary Update, the left column was updated to now include a list of all apps, as well as a list of user folders in a hamburger menu. Windows 10 build 17004 slightly updated the apps section of the menu to use Fluent Design hover effects. Windows 10 build 20161 updated the tiles and app icons so that they no longer have an accent colour behind them.

Windows 10X/11[edit | edit source]

Windows 10X introduced a centered Start menu design that removed Live Tiles, merged the search bar with the Start menu again and introduced a new menu for recent items. Pinned apps no longer have boxes behind them. After the cancellation of Windows 10X, Windows 11 build 21996 introduced a similar Start menu to Windows 10X, however the search functionality exists in a separate place on the taskbar again.

Gallery[edit | edit source]