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23:47, 2 June 2020: Meow (talk | contribs) triggered filter 13, performing the action "edit" on Microsoft Windows. Actions taken: Tag; Filter description: Magic words should be substituted (examine | diff)

Changes made in edit

 
{{pp}}
 
{{pp}}
'''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. The latest released version as of 2020-06 is [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]].
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'''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. The latest released version as of {{CURRENTYEAR}}-{{CURRENTMONTH}} is [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]].
  
 
The first versions of Windows were an operating environment and graphical shell for [[MS-DOS]]. Windows 95 and later used MS-DOS for booting and kernel initialization. NT-based versions of Windows use a redesigned kernel and do not rely on MS-DOS.
 
The first versions of Windows were an operating environment and graphical shell for [[MS-DOS]]. Windows 95 and later used MS-DOS for booting and kernel initialization. NT-based versions of Windows use a redesigned kernel and do not rely on MS-DOS.

Action parameters

VariableValue
Name of the user account (user_name)
Meow
Groups (including implicit) the user is in (user_groups)
automoderated * user autoconfirmed
Whether or not a user is editing through the mobile interface (user_mobile)
Page ID (page_id)
45
Page namespace (page_namespace)
0
Page title (without namespace) (page_title)
Microsoft Windows
Full page title (page_prefixedtitle)
Microsoft Windows
Action (action)
edit
Edit summary/reason (summary)
so that it doesn’t have to be updated every month :)
Old content model (old_content_model)
wikitext
New content model (new_content_model)
wikitext
Old page wikitext, before the edit (old_wikitext)
{{pp}} '''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. The latest released version as of 2020-06 is [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]]. The first versions of Windows were an operating environment and graphical shell for [[MS-DOS]]. Windows 95 and later used MS-DOS for booting and kernel initialization. NT-based versions of Windows use a redesigned kernel and do not rely on MS-DOS. == History == === 16-bit Windows === [[File:Win101.png|thumb|Windows 1.01, the very first version of Windows released into retail]] Microsoft Windows debuted to the world during the Fall COMDEX 1983 computer expo as an operating environment running on top MS-DOS. The final version of the product with the version number of 1.01 was later released on 1985-11-20 and did not gain much popularity. [[Windows 1.0]] was a cooperative multitasking desktop environment with a tiling window manager. The first versions of Windows used the [[MS-DOS Executive]], which was a simple file manager, as a shell, which is generally the first application ran on startup providing the user experience. Other applications included in the first version of Windows included [[Calculator]], [[Cardfile]], [[Clipboard Viewer]], [[Clock]], [[Control Panel]], [[Notepad]], [[Paint]], [[Reversi]], [[Spooler]], [[Terminal]], and [[Microsoft Write]]. Three minor updates were released in the two following years adding support for more hardware. A major update called [[Windows 2.x|Windows 2.0]] was released in 1987 adding features such as overlapping windows. This version also introduced support for the Video Graphics Array and PS/2 mouse. A separate edition called Windows/386 was introduced that took advantage of the virtual 8086 mode of the then-new 386 processor to multitask MS-DOS applications under Windows; this would later become known as the 386 Enhanced Mode and become the cornerstone of Windows 9x. In later revisions of the Windows 2.0 environment, the original edition was renamed Windows/286. [[Windows 3.0]] was released in 1990 and became the first widely successful version of Windows. The new features included a revamped user experience consisting of the [[Program Manager]], which allowed easy management of installed applications. A new [[File Manager]] was also included to replace the former shell, which was now deprecated. Under the hood, the new Standard Mode was introduced, which took advantage of the protected mode of the 286 and 386 processors. The previously separate 286 and 386 editions of Windows were unified into one version. This version of Windows was able to operate in three modes: Real mode intended for computers with the original 8088/8086 processor, Standard mode using the protected mode feature of the 286 processor, and 386 Enhanced mode combining the improved protected mode of the 386 with its ability to create and manage virtual 8086 machines for MS-DOS applications. A major update dubbed [[Windows 3.1]] followed in 1992 with the brand new red-green-blue-yellow Windows logo resembling a flag. The user interface was refreshed in this release, including new colorful icons. This version of Windows removed the real mode of operation and the MS-DOS Executive application. It was accompanied with a variant called Windows for Workgroups (WfW) 3.1 with an integrated networking capability, which later received a larger update bringing its version number up to 3.11, introducing 32-bit disk access and also removing the Standard mode of operation. The regular variant of Windows also received the 3.11 update, which was essentially the kernel of Windows for Workgroups 3.11 backported to Windows 3.1. A 32-bit TCP/IP stack was ported from an early version of [[Windows 95]] and released in 1994 as a downloadable plugin for Windows for Workgroups 3.11, providing early testing for the 16/32-bit compatibility features of the next version of Windows. === Windows 9x === [[File:Windows95-RTM-Desktop.png|thumb|Windows 95, the first version with the Desktop, Start menu, and taskbar]] On 1995-08-24 Microsoft released [[Windows 95]] also known under its codename "Chicago" with a brand new user interface with a Start menu, taskbar, and the desktop, as provided by the new [[File Explorer|Windows Explorer]]. Its hybrid 16/32-bit architecture made it possible to make and run 32-bit Windows applications and drivers while keeping a great degree of compatibility with already existing 16-bit ones. Among other improvements in this version was the support for long filenames through an extension to the FAT16 file system. Windows 95 was the first release of Windows to be packed together with a specific MS-DOS version, however, the old operating system was used only as a bootloader and a compatibility layer for ancient device drivers. Most MS-DOS user applications were either extended with Windows code or entirely replaced with a Windows version, keeping only the ones that were required to run without Windows, e.g. during the OS installation, such as <code>FDISK</code> and <code>FORMAT</code>. During its lifetime Windows 95 saw several larger updates dubbed the OEM Service Releases (OSR) that were released only to computer manufacturers, specifically OSR 1.0, OSR 2.0, OSR 2.1, and OSR 2.5. A Service Pack was also released that updated an RTM copy of Windows 95 to the OSR 1.0 level. In 1997 a USB Supplement was released for OSR 2.x that added support for the then-new Universal Serial Bus interface. The classic Windows line received a major update on 1998-06-25 with the release of [[Windows 98]] codenamed "Memphis". It was the first version to integrate [[Internet Explorer]] deeply into the operating system's user interface as a part of the Windows Desktop Update. Many parts of the UI started using HTML and Internet Explorer's rendering engine to present a web-like user interface. A feature called Active Desktop made it even possible to set a webpage as the desktop background. Under the hood Windows 98 introduced the new Windows Driver Model, which enabled the use of the same drivers on Windows 9x as well as on the radically different Windows NT based operating systems. A year later, Windows 98 received an update which was called the Second Edition, which included a new version of Internet Explorer, added Internet Connection Sharing and improved USB support. In 2000, [[Windows Me]] (Millennium Edition), the last release of the classic Windows line was released. It carried over the improvements made to the user interface in its NT-based counterpart, [[Windows 2000]]. Windows Me is based on Windows 98, however, access to the real mode MS-DOS was restricted in order to decrease boot time among other changes to the kernel. It was infamously known for its stability problems partially caused by the rushing of its release following the cancellation of the [[Windows Neptune|Neptune]] project. It was replaced by [[Windows XP]] in 2001, ending the era of classic Windows. === Windows NT === Windows NT (New Technology) is the current iteration of Windows. It is built on the NT hybrid kernel, which was originally intended for use in OS/2 3.0 but was adapted for a 32-bit version of Windows after the Microsoft - IBM split. The first release based on the new kernel was [[Windows NT 3.1]], which was launched in 1993 and was equivalent to Windows 3.1 released two years earlier. All NT-based releases up until [[Windows 2000]] were intended primarily for business use. With [[Windows XP]], the NT series replaced the classic Windows series, creating a single operating system for consumers and businesses. [[Windows Phone 8]] is the first Windows Phone release to be based on the NT kernel. The most recent version of Windows based on the NT kernel is [[Windows 10]]. Following the release of Windows 10, Microsoft has switched to a system of more frequent smaller updates to Windows. == Look and feel == Windows allowed customization of its user interface since its first versions. [[Windows 1.0]] and [[Windows 2.x]] allowed the user to change the color scheme in their [[Control Panel]], however, there was no selection of pre-made color schemes and the user only had the option to reset to the default scheme, which was provided by the installed video driver. This was improved with [[Windows 3.0]] and its new Colors control panel, which added several color schemes for the user to choose from, however, the ''Windows default'' preset was still dependent on the type of the graphics card installed. [[Windows NT 3.1]] and [[Windows NT 3.5x]] also featured the same Color control panel applet, however, drivers no longer had the ability to override the default color preset. [[Windows 95]] introduced a new 3D look inspired by [[NeXTSTEP]] which initially only made use of solid colors. This was subsequently refined in [[Windows 98]] and [[Windows 2000]] with the possibility to use 2-color gradients for the taskbar. [[Windows XP]] introduced a proper theming engine, allowing the use of bitmaps for various user interface elements and saw the first proper visual style, called [[Luna]], come in to use, but users could still switch to [[Windows Classic]] if they so chose. [[Windows Vista]] introduced the hardware-accelerated [[Desktop Window Manager]], which allowed for advanced effects such as translucent title bars used by the new [[Windows Aero]] theme. For users whose hardware couldn't handle Aero, Windows Vista included the software rendered [[Windows Basic]] theme. With [[Windows 8]] and [[Windows 8.1]], the Aero theme was revamped and the [[Aero Lite]] theme replaced the Basic theme for lower-end computers. In [[Windows 10]], the Aero theme was revamped again, but the Aero Lite theme remained. Windows 10's November Update saw the option to enable colors on title bar. Finally, with [[Windows 10 build 18282]], the new [[Light]] theme was introduced. == Source code == In 2004, incomplete copies of the source code of [[Windows NT 4.0]] and [[Windows 2000]] leaked to the Internet. These leaks were illegal, as the Windows source code is both a trade secret and copyrighted, and as so is protected by law. However, Microsoft has released parts of the source of the [[Windows Server 2003]] kernel for research purposes. In 2017, ''The Register'' and other technology journals reported about a leak of the [[Windows 10]] Shared Source Kits, which are available to qualified customers, enterprises, governments, and partners for debugging and reference purposes, to [[BetaArchive]]. Following the controversy, BetaArchive removed all source code content from its archives, which also included the aforementioned incomplete copies of the Windows source code, and adopted a policy of not accepting any more source code material. In 2018, the source code of the Windows NT [[File Manager]] (<code>winfile</code>) was released on GitHub under the open source MIT license. This was later followed in 2019 by the Windows 10 [[Calculator]] application. In 2020, a copy of the source code of [[Windows NT 3.5 build 782.1]] leaked to the ''4chan'' /vp/ board.<ref>https://boards.4channel.org/vp/thread/43555197#p43580444</ref> It is not yet known whether the leaked source is complete. == Timeline == {| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%" |- ! colspan="6" | <h3>"Classic" Windows family</h3> |- ! Name ! Version ! Code name ! Release date ! Support end date ! Notes |- | [[Windows 1.0]] | 1.0x | Interface Manager | 1985 | 2001-12-31 | First release of Windows |- | [[Windows 2.x]] | 2.x | Windows 1.5<ref>http://antitrust.slated.org/www.iowaconsumercase.org/011607/3000/PX03414.pdf#page=21</ref> | 1987 | 2001-12-31 | Introduced overlapping windows |- | [[Windows 3.0]] | 3.0 | {{N/A}} | 1990 | 2001-12-31 | Introduced Program Manager |- | [[Windows 3.1x]] | 3.1x | Sparta (WfW 3.1)<br>Snowball (WfW 3.11) | 1992 | 2001-12-31 | |- | [[Windows 95]] | 4.0 | Chicago | 1995 | 2001-12-31 | Introduced Desktop, Start Menu and Taskbar |- | ''[[Windows Nashville]]'' | 4.1 | Nashville | {{N/A}} | {{N/A}} | Never released |- | [[Windows 98]] | 4.1 | Memphis | 1998, 1999 (SE) | 2006-07-11 | |- | [[Windows Me|Windows Millennium Edition]] | 4.9 | Millennium | 2000 | 2006-07-11 | |- ! colspan="6" | <h3>Windows NT family</h3> |- ! Name ! Version ! Code name ! Release date ! Support end date ! Notes |- | [[Windows NT 3.1]] | NT 3.1 | Razzle, NT OS/2 | 1993 | 2000-12-31 | |- | [[Windows NT 3.5x]] | NT 3.5x | Daytona | 1994 | 2001-12-31 | |- | ''[[Microsoft Cairo]]'' | rowspan="2" | NT 4.0 | Cairo | {{N/A}} | {{N/A}} | Never released |- | [[Windows NT 4.0]] | Shell Update Release | 1996 | 2004-06-30 | |- | [[Windows 2000]] | NT 5.0 | Memphis NT, NT 5 | 2000 | 2010-07-13 | |- | ''[[Windows Neptune]]'' | NT 5.5 | Neptune | {{N/A}} | {{N/A}} | Never released; merged with other projects to form Whistler |- | [[Windows XP]] | rowspan="4" | NT 5.1 | Whistler | 2001 | 2014-04-08 | First NT for home users |- | [[Windows Embedded for Point of Service]] | {{N/A}} | 2005 | 2016-04-12 |- | [[Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs]] | Eiger, Monch | 2006 | 2014-04-08 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 2009]] | Quebec | 2008 | 2019-01-08 (Standard)<br>2019-04-09 (PoS) | |- | [[Windows Server 2003]] | rowspan="3" | NT 5.2 | Whistler Server, .NET Server | 2003 | 2015-07-14 | |- | [[Windows Small Business Server 2003]] | Bobcat | 2003 | 2015-07-14 | |- | [[Windows Home Server]] | Quattro | 2007 | 2013-08-01 | |- | [[Windows Vista]] | rowspan="2" | NT 6.0 | Longhorn | 2006 | 2017-04-11 | Development was reset on 2004-08-20 |- | [[Windows Server 2008]] | Longhorn Server | 2008 | 2020-01-14 | |- | [[Windows 7]] | rowspan="6" | NT 6.1 | Windows 7 | 2009 | 2020-01-14 | |- | [[Windows Server 2008 R2]] | Windows Server 7 | 2009 | 2020-01-14 | |- | [[Windows MultiPoint Server 2010]] | Solution Server | 2010 | 2020-07-14 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 7]] | Quebec | 2010 (Standard)<br>2011 (PoS) | 2020-10-13 (Standard)<br>2021-10-12 (PoS) | |- | [[Windows Home Server 2011]] | Vail | 2011 | 2016-04-12 | |- | [[Windows Thin PC]] | Thin PC | 2011 | 2021-10-12 | |- | [[Windows 8]] | rowspan="3" | NT 6.2 | '8' | 2012 | 2016-01-12 | |- | [[Windows Server 2012]] | Server '8' | 2012 | 2023-10-10 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 8]] | | 2013 | 2016-01-12 (Industry) | |- | [[Windows 8.1]] | rowspan="3" | NT 6.3 | Blue | 2013 | 2023-01-10 | |- | [[Windows Server 2012 R2]] | Server Blue | 2013 | 2023-10-10 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 8.1]] | | 2013 | 2023-07-11 (Industry) | |- | [[Windows 10]] | NT 10.0 | Threshold | 2015-07-29 | 2017-05-09 | |- ! colspan="6" | <h4>Windows 10 updates (NT 10.0)</h4> |- ! Name ! Version ! Code name ! Release date ! Support end date ! Notes |- | [[Windows 10 version 1511|Windows 10 November Update]] | 1511 | Threshold 2 | 2015-11-10 | 2017-10-10 | |- | [[Windows 10 version 1607|Windows 10 Anniversary Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1607 | Redstone 1 | rowspan="2" | 2016-08-02 | 2019-04-09 | |- | [[Windows Server 2016]] | Threshold Server | 2027-01-11 | Long-Time Servicing Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1703|Windows 10 Creators Update]] | 1703 | Redstone 2 | 2017-04-05 | 2019-10-08 | |- | [[Windows 10 version 1709|Windows 10 Fall Creators Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1709 | rowspan="2" | Redstone 3 | rowspan="2" | 2017-10-17 | rowspan="2" | 2020-10-13 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1709]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1803|Windows 10 April 2018 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1803 | rowspan="2" | Redstone 4 | rowspan="2" | 2018-04-30 | rowspan="2" | 2020-11-10 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1803]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1809|Windows 10 October 2018 Update]] | rowspan="3" | 1809 | rowspan="3" | Redstone 5 | rowspan="3" | 2018-11-13 | rowspan="2" | 2021-05-11 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1809]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows Server 2019]] | 2029-01-09 | Long-Time Servicing Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1903|Windows 10 May 2019 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1903 | rowspan="2" | 19H1 | rowspan="2" | 2019-05-21 | rowspan="2" | 2020-12-08 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1903]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1909|Windows 10 November 2019 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1909 | rowspan="2" | 19H2, Vanadium<ref name="vanadium">https://www.zdnet.com/article/what-comes-after-windows-10-19h1-vanadium/</ref> | rowspan="2" | 2019-11-12 | rowspan="2" | 2022-05-10 | Cumulative update for Windows 10 May 2019 Update. |- | [[Windows Server version 1909]] | Cumulative update for Windows Server version 1903; Semi-Annual Channel release. |- | [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 2004 | rowspan="2" | 20H1, Vibranium<ref name="vanadium"/><ref>https://twitter.com/h0x0d/status/1125409514193281024</ref> | rowspan="2" | 2020-05-27 | rowspan="2" | 2021-12-14 | |- | [[Windows Server version 2004]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 2009]] | rowspan="2" | 2009 | rowspan="2" | 20H2 | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | Cumulative update for Windows 10 May 2020 Update |- | [[Windows Server version 2009]] | Cumulative update for Windows Server version 2004; Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 Manganese|Windows 10 ''Manganese'']] | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" | Manganese<ref name="manganese">https://twitter.com/teroalhonen/status/1247971344689565697</ref> | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | Only released as an insider preview |- | [[Windows Server Manganese|Windows Server ''Manganese'']] | Only released as an insider preview |- | [[Windows 10 Iron|Windows 10 ''Iron'']] | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" | Iron<ref name="iron">https://web.archive.org/web/20200519235210/https://devblogs.microsoft.com/directx/directx-heart-linux/</ref> | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | Upcoming feature update |- | [[Windows Server Iron|Windows Server ''Iron'']] | Upcoming Semi-Annual Channel release |} === Planned versions that were never finished === ==== Cairo era ==== * '''[[Microsoft Cairo|Cairo]]''' : Version: NT 4.00 in 1995, earlier versions unknown : Developed 1992-1995, scheduled release date unknown : Development started but project was later scrapped, many of its features released as part of other versions ==== Nashville era ==== * '''[[Windows Nashville|Nashville]]''' : Version: 4.10 : Developed 1995, scheduled for release in 1996 : Development started, project goals later transferred to Memphis and Internet Explorer 4 ==== Neptune era ==== * '''[[Windows Neptune|Neptune]]''' : Version: NT 5.50 : Developed 1998-1999, scheduled for release in 2001 : Cancelled in 2000-01 and replaced with the Whistler project that would later become Windows XP * '''[[Windows Triton|Triton]]''' : Version: Unknown : Scheduled for release in 2001 : Never left the drafting board, supposed to be a minor update to Neptune, cancelled in 2000-01 * '''[[Windows Odyssey|Odyssey]]''' : Version: NT 6.00 : According to antitrust documents it was already in development before getting cancelled in 2000-01. ==== Whistler era ==== * '''[[Windows Longhorn|Longhorn]]''' : Version: NT 6.0 : Developed 2001-2004, scheduled for release in 2003-2006 : Initially supposed to be an interim release between Whistler and Blackcomb, the project objectives eventually included a lot of features originally intended for Blackcomb. Development was reset in 2004. * '''[[Windows Blackcomb|Blackcomb]]''' : Version: Unknown : Scheduled for release in 2005 : Originally a major update to Longhorn. Allegedly later renamed to Vienna. == See also == * [[Desktop Composition Engine]] * [[Desktop Window Manager]] * [[File Explorer]] * [[MS-DOS]] * [[UX.Unleaked]] * [[User Account Control]] * [[List of Windows visual styles]] * [[Self-Host Vote]] * [[Redpill]] * [[Mars]] * [[Timebomb]] * [[Windows CE]] * [[WinFS]] * [[WinJS]] * [[Windows Phone]] * [[Windows Help]] * [[Windows Sidebar]] * [[Windows Update]] == References == <references/> [[Category:Microsoft Windows| ]] [[Category:Operating systems]] [[Category:Microsoft]]
New page wikitext, after the edit (new_wikitext)
{{pp}} '''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. The latest released version as of {{CURRENTYEAR}}-{{CURRENTMONTH}} is [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]]. The first versions of Windows were an operating environment and graphical shell for [[MS-DOS]]. Windows 95 and later used MS-DOS for booting and kernel initialization. NT-based versions of Windows use a redesigned kernel and do not rely on MS-DOS. == History == === 16-bit Windows === [[File:Win101.png|thumb|Windows 1.01, the very first version of Windows released into retail]] Microsoft Windows debuted to the world during the Fall COMDEX 1983 computer expo as an operating environment running on top MS-DOS. The final version of the product with the version number of 1.01 was later released on 1985-11-20 and did not gain much popularity. [[Windows 1.0]] was a cooperative multitasking desktop environment with a tiling window manager. The first versions of Windows used the [[MS-DOS Executive]], which was a simple file manager, as a shell, which is generally the first application ran on startup providing the user experience. Other applications included in the first version of Windows included [[Calculator]], [[Cardfile]], [[Clipboard Viewer]], [[Clock]], [[Control Panel]], [[Notepad]], [[Paint]], [[Reversi]], [[Spooler]], [[Terminal]], and [[Microsoft Write]]. Three minor updates were released in the two following years adding support for more hardware. A major update called [[Windows 2.x|Windows 2.0]] was released in 1987 adding features such as overlapping windows. This version also introduced support for the Video Graphics Array and PS/2 mouse. A separate edition called Windows/386 was introduced that took advantage of the virtual 8086 mode of the then-new 386 processor to multitask MS-DOS applications under Windows; this would later become known as the 386 Enhanced Mode and become the cornerstone of Windows 9x. In later revisions of the Windows 2.0 environment, the original edition was renamed Windows/286. [[Windows 3.0]] was released in 1990 and became the first widely successful version of Windows. The new features included a revamped user experience consisting of the [[Program Manager]], which allowed easy management of installed applications. A new [[File Manager]] was also included to replace the former shell, which was now deprecated. Under the hood, the new Standard Mode was introduced, which took advantage of the protected mode of the 286 and 386 processors. The previously separate 286 and 386 editions of Windows were unified into one version. This version of Windows was able to operate in three modes: Real mode intended for computers with the original 8088/8086 processor, Standard mode using the protected mode feature of the 286 processor, and 386 Enhanced mode combining the improved protected mode of the 386 with its ability to create and manage virtual 8086 machines for MS-DOS applications. A major update dubbed [[Windows 3.1]] followed in 1992 with the brand new red-green-blue-yellow Windows logo resembling a flag. The user interface was refreshed in this release, including new colorful icons. This version of Windows removed the real mode of operation and the MS-DOS Executive application. It was accompanied with a variant called Windows for Workgroups (WfW) 3.1 with an integrated networking capability, which later received a larger update bringing its version number up to 3.11, introducing 32-bit disk access and also removing the Standard mode of operation. The regular variant of Windows also received the 3.11 update, which was essentially the kernel of Windows for Workgroups 3.11 backported to Windows 3.1. A 32-bit TCP/IP stack was ported from an early version of [[Windows 95]] and released in 1994 as a downloadable plugin for Windows for Workgroups 3.11, providing early testing for the 16/32-bit compatibility features of the next version of Windows. === Windows 9x === [[File:Windows95-RTM-Desktop.png|thumb|Windows 95, the first version with the Desktop, Start menu, and taskbar]] On 1995-08-24 Microsoft released [[Windows 95]] also known under its codename "Chicago" with a brand new user interface with a Start menu, taskbar, and the desktop, as provided by the new [[File Explorer|Windows Explorer]]. Its hybrid 16/32-bit architecture made it possible to make and run 32-bit Windows applications and drivers while keeping a great degree of compatibility with already existing 16-bit ones. Among other improvements in this version was the support for long filenames through an extension to the FAT16 file system. Windows 95 was the first release of Windows to be packed together with a specific MS-DOS version, however, the old operating system was used only as a bootloader and a compatibility layer for ancient device drivers. Most MS-DOS user applications were either extended with Windows code or entirely replaced with a Windows version, keeping only the ones that were required to run without Windows, e.g. during the OS installation, such as <code>FDISK</code> and <code>FORMAT</code>. During its lifetime Windows 95 saw several larger updates dubbed the OEM Service Releases (OSR) that were released only to computer manufacturers, specifically OSR 1.0, OSR 2.0, OSR 2.1, and OSR 2.5. A Service Pack was also released that updated an RTM copy of Windows 95 to the OSR 1.0 level. In 1997 a USB Supplement was released for OSR 2.x that added support for the then-new Universal Serial Bus interface. The classic Windows line received a major update on 1998-06-25 with the release of [[Windows 98]] codenamed "Memphis". It was the first version to integrate [[Internet Explorer]] deeply into the operating system's user interface as a part of the Windows Desktop Update. Many parts of the UI started using HTML and Internet Explorer's rendering engine to present a web-like user interface. A feature called Active Desktop made it even possible to set a webpage as the desktop background. Under the hood Windows 98 introduced the new Windows Driver Model, which enabled the use of the same drivers on Windows 9x as well as on the radically different Windows NT based operating systems. A year later, Windows 98 received an update which was called the Second Edition, which included a new version of Internet Explorer, added Internet Connection Sharing and improved USB support. In 2000, [[Windows Me]] (Millennium Edition), the last release of the classic Windows line was released. It carried over the improvements made to the user interface in its NT-based counterpart, [[Windows 2000]]. Windows Me is based on Windows 98, however, access to the real mode MS-DOS was restricted in order to decrease boot time among other changes to the kernel. It was infamously known for its stability problems partially caused by the rushing of its release following the cancellation of the [[Windows Neptune|Neptune]] project. It was replaced by [[Windows XP]] in 2001, ending the era of classic Windows. === Windows NT === Windows NT (New Technology) is the current iteration of Windows. It is built on the NT hybrid kernel, which was originally intended for use in OS/2 3.0 but was adapted for a 32-bit version of Windows after the Microsoft - IBM split. The first release based on the new kernel was [[Windows NT 3.1]], which was launched in 1993 and was equivalent to Windows 3.1 released two years earlier. All NT-based releases up until [[Windows 2000]] were intended primarily for business use. With [[Windows XP]], the NT series replaced the classic Windows series, creating a single operating system for consumers and businesses. [[Windows Phone 8]] is the first Windows Phone release to be based on the NT kernel. The most recent version of Windows based on the NT kernel is [[Windows 10]]. Following the release of Windows 10, Microsoft has switched to a system of more frequent smaller updates to Windows. == Look and feel == Windows allowed customization of its user interface since its first versions. [[Windows 1.0]] and [[Windows 2.x]] allowed the user to change the color scheme in their [[Control Panel]], however, there was no selection of pre-made color schemes and the user only had the option to reset to the default scheme, which was provided by the installed video driver. This was improved with [[Windows 3.0]] and its new Colors control panel, which added several color schemes for the user to choose from, however, the ''Windows default'' preset was still dependent on the type of the graphics card installed. [[Windows NT 3.1]] and [[Windows NT 3.5x]] also featured the same Color control panel applet, however, drivers no longer had the ability to override the default color preset. [[Windows 95]] introduced a new 3D look inspired by [[NeXTSTEP]] which initially only made use of solid colors. This was subsequently refined in [[Windows 98]] and [[Windows 2000]] with the possibility to use 2-color gradients for the taskbar. [[Windows XP]] introduced a proper theming engine, allowing the use of bitmaps for various user interface elements and saw the first proper visual style, called [[Luna]], come in to use, but users could still switch to [[Windows Classic]] if they so chose. [[Windows Vista]] introduced the hardware-accelerated [[Desktop Window Manager]], which allowed for advanced effects such as translucent title bars used by the new [[Windows Aero]] theme. For users whose hardware couldn't handle Aero, Windows Vista included the software rendered [[Windows Basic]] theme. With [[Windows 8]] and [[Windows 8.1]], the Aero theme was revamped and the [[Aero Lite]] theme replaced the Basic theme for lower-end computers. In [[Windows 10]], the Aero theme was revamped again, but the Aero Lite theme remained. Windows 10's November Update saw the option to enable colors on title bar. Finally, with [[Windows 10 build 18282]], the new [[Light]] theme was introduced. == Source code == In 2004, incomplete copies of the source code of [[Windows NT 4.0]] and [[Windows 2000]] leaked to the Internet. These leaks were illegal, as the Windows source code is both a trade secret and copyrighted, and as so is protected by law. However, Microsoft has released parts of the source of the [[Windows Server 2003]] kernel for research purposes. In 2017, ''The Register'' and other technology journals reported about a leak of the [[Windows 10]] Shared Source Kits, which are available to qualified customers, enterprises, governments, and partners for debugging and reference purposes, to [[BetaArchive]]. Following the controversy, BetaArchive removed all source code content from its archives, which also included the aforementioned incomplete copies of the Windows source code, and adopted a policy of not accepting any more source code material. In 2018, the source code of the Windows NT [[File Manager]] (<code>winfile</code>) was released on GitHub under the open source MIT license. This was later followed in 2019 by the Windows 10 [[Calculator]] application. In 2020, a copy of the source code of [[Windows NT 3.5 build 782.1]] leaked to the ''4chan'' /vp/ board.<ref>https://boards.4channel.org/vp/thread/43555197#p43580444</ref> It is not yet known whether the leaked source is complete. == Timeline == {| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%" |- ! colspan="6" | <h3>"Classic" Windows family</h3> |- ! Name ! Version ! Code name ! Release date ! Support end date ! Notes |- | [[Windows 1.0]] | 1.0x | Interface Manager | 1985 | 2001-12-31 | First release of Windows |- | [[Windows 2.x]] | 2.x | Windows 1.5<ref>http://antitrust.slated.org/www.iowaconsumercase.org/011607/3000/PX03414.pdf#page=21</ref> | 1987 | 2001-12-31 | Introduced overlapping windows |- | [[Windows 3.0]] | 3.0 | {{N/A}} | 1990 | 2001-12-31 | Introduced Program Manager |- | [[Windows 3.1x]] | 3.1x | Sparta (WfW 3.1)<br>Snowball (WfW 3.11) | 1992 | 2001-12-31 | |- | [[Windows 95]] | 4.0 | Chicago | 1995 | 2001-12-31 | Introduced Desktop, Start Menu and Taskbar |- | ''[[Windows Nashville]]'' | 4.1 | Nashville | {{N/A}} | {{N/A}} | Never released |- | [[Windows 98]] | 4.1 | Memphis | 1998, 1999 (SE) | 2006-07-11 | |- | [[Windows Me|Windows Millennium Edition]] | 4.9 | Millennium | 2000 | 2006-07-11 | |- ! colspan="6" | <h3>Windows NT family</h3> |- ! Name ! Version ! Code name ! Release date ! Support end date ! Notes |- | [[Windows NT 3.1]] | NT 3.1 | Razzle, NT OS/2 | 1993 | 2000-12-31 | |- | [[Windows NT 3.5x]] | NT 3.5x | Daytona | 1994 | 2001-12-31 | |- | ''[[Microsoft Cairo]]'' | rowspan="2" | NT 4.0 | Cairo | {{N/A}} | {{N/A}} | Never released |- | [[Windows NT 4.0]] | Shell Update Release | 1996 | 2004-06-30 | |- | [[Windows 2000]] | NT 5.0 | Memphis NT, NT 5 | 2000 | 2010-07-13 | |- | ''[[Windows Neptune]]'' | NT 5.5 | Neptune | {{N/A}} | {{N/A}} | Never released; merged with other projects to form Whistler |- | [[Windows XP]] | rowspan="4" | NT 5.1 | Whistler | 2001 | 2014-04-08 | First NT for home users |- | [[Windows Embedded for Point of Service]] | {{N/A}} | 2005 | 2016-04-12 |- | [[Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs]] | Eiger, Monch | 2006 | 2014-04-08 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 2009]] | Quebec | 2008 | 2019-01-08 (Standard)<br>2019-04-09 (PoS) | |- | [[Windows Server 2003]] | rowspan="3" | NT 5.2 | Whistler Server, .NET Server | 2003 | 2015-07-14 | |- | [[Windows Small Business Server 2003]] | Bobcat | 2003 | 2015-07-14 | |- | [[Windows Home Server]] | Quattro | 2007 | 2013-08-01 | |- | [[Windows Vista]] | rowspan="2" | NT 6.0 | Longhorn | 2006 | 2017-04-11 | Development was reset on 2004-08-20 |- | [[Windows Server 2008]] | Longhorn Server | 2008 | 2020-01-14 | |- | [[Windows 7]] | rowspan="6" | NT 6.1 | Windows 7 | 2009 | 2020-01-14 | |- | [[Windows Server 2008 R2]] | Windows Server 7 | 2009 | 2020-01-14 | |- | [[Windows MultiPoint Server 2010]] | Solution Server | 2010 | 2020-07-14 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 7]] | Quebec | 2010 (Standard)<br>2011 (PoS) | 2020-10-13 (Standard)<br>2021-10-12 (PoS) | |- | [[Windows Home Server 2011]] | Vail | 2011 | 2016-04-12 | |- | [[Windows Thin PC]] | Thin PC | 2011 | 2021-10-12 | |- | [[Windows 8]] | rowspan="3" | NT 6.2 | '8' | 2012 | 2016-01-12 | |- | [[Windows Server 2012]] | Server '8' | 2012 | 2023-10-10 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 8]] | | 2013 | 2016-01-12 (Industry) | |- | [[Windows 8.1]] | rowspan="3" | NT 6.3 | Blue | 2013 | 2023-01-10 | |- | [[Windows Server 2012 R2]] | Server Blue | 2013 | 2023-10-10 | |- | [[Windows Embedded 8.1]] | | 2013 | 2023-07-11 (Industry) | |- | [[Windows 10]] | NT 10.0 | Threshold | 2015-07-29 | 2017-05-09 | |- ! colspan="6" | <h4>Windows 10 updates (NT 10.0)</h4> |- ! Name ! Version ! Code name ! Release date ! Support end date ! Notes |- | [[Windows 10 version 1511|Windows 10 November Update]] | 1511 | Threshold 2 | 2015-11-10 | 2017-10-10 | |- | [[Windows 10 version 1607|Windows 10 Anniversary Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1607 | Redstone 1 | rowspan="2" | 2016-08-02 | 2019-04-09 | |- | [[Windows Server 2016]] | Threshold Server | 2027-01-11 | Long-Time Servicing Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1703|Windows 10 Creators Update]] | 1703 | Redstone 2 | 2017-04-05 | 2019-10-08 | |- | [[Windows 10 version 1709|Windows 10 Fall Creators Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1709 | rowspan="2" | Redstone 3 | rowspan="2" | 2017-10-17 | rowspan="2" | 2020-10-13 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1709]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1803|Windows 10 April 2018 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1803 | rowspan="2" | Redstone 4 | rowspan="2" | 2018-04-30 | rowspan="2" | 2020-11-10 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1803]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1809|Windows 10 October 2018 Update]] | rowspan="3" | 1809 | rowspan="3" | Redstone 5 | rowspan="3" | 2018-11-13 | rowspan="2" | 2021-05-11 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1809]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows Server 2019]] | 2029-01-09 | Long-Time Servicing Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1903|Windows 10 May 2019 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1903 | rowspan="2" | 19H1 | rowspan="2" | 2019-05-21 | rowspan="2" | 2020-12-08 | |- | [[Windows Server version 1903]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 1909|Windows 10 November 2019 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 1909 | rowspan="2" | 19H2, Vanadium<ref name="vanadium">https://www.zdnet.com/article/what-comes-after-windows-10-19h1-vanadium/</ref> | rowspan="2" | 2019-11-12 | rowspan="2" | 2022-05-10 | Cumulative update for Windows 10 May 2019 Update. |- | [[Windows Server version 1909]] | Cumulative update for Windows Server version 1903; Semi-Annual Channel release. |- | [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]] | rowspan="2" | 2004 | rowspan="2" | 20H1, Vibranium<ref name="vanadium"/><ref>https://twitter.com/h0x0d/status/1125409514193281024</ref> | rowspan="2" | 2020-05-27 | rowspan="2" | 2021-12-14 | |- | [[Windows Server version 2004]] | Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 version 2009]] | rowspan="2" | 2009 | rowspan="2" | 20H2 | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | Cumulative update for Windows 10 May 2020 Update |- | [[Windows Server version 2009]] | Cumulative update for Windows Server version 2004; Semi-Annual Channel release |- | [[Windows 10 Manganese|Windows 10 ''Manganese'']] | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" | Manganese<ref name="manganese">https://twitter.com/teroalhonen/status/1247971344689565697</ref> | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | Only released as an insider preview |- | [[Windows Server Manganese|Windows Server ''Manganese'']] | Only released as an insider preview |- | [[Windows 10 Iron|Windows 10 ''Iron'']] | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" | Iron<ref name="iron">https://web.archive.org/web/20200519235210/https://devblogs.microsoft.com/directx/directx-heart-linux/</ref> | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | rowspan="2" {{N/A}} | Upcoming feature update |- | [[Windows Server Iron|Windows Server ''Iron'']] | Upcoming Semi-Annual Channel release |} === Planned versions that were never finished === ==== Cairo era ==== * '''[[Microsoft Cairo|Cairo]]''' : Version: NT 4.00 in 1995, earlier versions unknown : Developed 1992-1995, scheduled release date unknown : Development started but project was later scrapped, many of its features released as part of other versions ==== Nashville era ==== * '''[[Windows Nashville|Nashville]]''' : Version: 4.10 : Developed 1995, scheduled for release in 1996 : Development started, project goals later transferred to Memphis and Internet Explorer 4 ==== Neptune era ==== * '''[[Windows Neptune|Neptune]]''' : Version: NT 5.50 : Developed 1998-1999, scheduled for release in 2001 : Cancelled in 2000-01 and replaced with the Whistler project that would later become Windows XP * '''[[Windows Triton|Triton]]''' : Version: Unknown : Scheduled for release in 2001 : Never left the drafting board, supposed to be a minor update to Neptune, cancelled in 2000-01 * '''[[Windows Odyssey|Odyssey]]''' : Version: NT 6.00 : According to antitrust documents it was already in development before getting cancelled in 2000-01. ==== Whistler era ==== * '''[[Windows Longhorn|Longhorn]]''' : Version: NT 6.0 : Developed 2001-2004, scheduled for release in 2003-2006 : Initially supposed to be an interim release between Whistler and Blackcomb, the project objectives eventually included a lot of features originally intended for Blackcomb. Development was reset in 2004. * '''[[Windows Blackcomb|Blackcomb]]''' : Version: Unknown : Scheduled for release in 2005 : Originally a major update to Longhorn. Allegedly later renamed to Vienna. == See also == * [[Desktop Composition Engine]] * [[Desktop Window Manager]] * [[File Explorer]] * [[MS-DOS]] * [[UX.Unleaked]] * [[User Account Control]] * [[List of Windows visual styles]] * [[Self-Host Vote]] * [[Redpill]] * [[Mars]] * [[Timebomb]] * [[Windows CE]] * [[WinFS]] * [[WinJS]] * [[Windows Phone]] * [[Windows Help]] * [[Windows Sidebar]] * [[Windows Update]] == References == <references/> [[Category:Microsoft Windows| ]] [[Category:Operating systems]] [[Category:Microsoft]]
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@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@ {{pp}} -'''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. The latest released version as of 2020-06 is [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]]. +'''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. The latest released version as of {{CURRENTYEAR}}-{{CURRENTMONTH}} is [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]]. The first versions of Windows were an operating environment and graphical shell for [[MS-DOS]]. Windows 95 and later used MS-DOS for booting and kernel initialization. NT-based versions of Windows use a redesigned kernel and do not rely on MS-DOS.
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'''Microsoft Windows''' is a family of operating systems developed by [[Microsoft]] since 1983. The latest released version as of {{CURRENTYEAR}}-{{CURRENTMONTH}} is [[Windows 10 version 2004|Windows 10 May 2020 Update]].
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