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'''Linux''' is an open source monolithic Unix-like [[POSIX]]-compliant kernel created by Linus Torvalds. Unlike some complete operating systems, Linux is a base for OS developers to create an OS with the software of their own while using a pre-made widely-supported kernel.
 
'''Linux''' is an open source monolithic Unix-like [[POSIX]]-compliant kernel created by Linus Torvalds. Unlike some complete operating systems, Linux is a base for OS developers to create an OS with the software of their own while using a pre-made widely-supported kernel.
  
== Distributions ==
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==Distributions==
 
Linux comes in several distributions with their own [[Package Management|package managers]] and other implementations of things. Many Linux distributions include the [[GNU]] suite of essential software, however, a notable few (such as Google's [[Android]]) omit GNU and instead opt for their own custom suite of software.
 
Linux comes in several distributions with their own [[Package Management|package managers]] and other implementations of things. Many Linux distributions include the [[GNU]] suite of essential software, however, a notable few (such as Google's [[Android]]) omit GNU and instead opt for their own custom suite of software.
  
== Conventions ==
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==Conventions==
 
Linux distributions have many conventions that make Linux more than a kernel. Here are some:
 
Linux distributions have many conventions that make Linux more than a kernel. Here are some:
  
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* Linux systems will usually use a descendant of the Bourne shell for a navigation shell. This includes shells like bash and zsh.
 
* Linux systems will usually use a descendant of the Bourne shell for a navigation shell. This includes shells like bash and zsh.
  
== Everything is a file ==
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==Everything is a file==
In Linux, even things like hardware are represented as files that can be written to. For example, the file for the first hard drive is /dev/sda. This means that if you want to write bytes directly to the drive you can use an app that lays bytes (like dd) to write directly to that file. This can be done by using the app named echo to output something and piping the output to dd which you specify the hard disk's file too.
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In Linux, even things like hardware are represented as files that can be written to. For example, the file for the first hard drive is /dev/sda. This means that if you want to write bytes directly to the drive you can use an app that lays bytes (like dd) to write directly to that file. This can be done by using the app named echo to output something and piping the output to dd which you specify the hard disk's file too.  
  
 
There are also more liberal concepts of devices in /dev. /dev/null, when written to, discards all data sent to it. If you write to /dev/null and then open it it will still be empty.
 
There are also more liberal concepts of devices in /dev. /dev/null, when written to, discards all data sent to it. If you write to /dev/null and then open it it will still be empty.
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There is also another directory, called /proc, that manages other devices. The directory /proc/acpi contains all sorts of subtle devices like the power button and battery.
 
There is also another directory, called /proc, that manages other devices. The directory /proc/acpi contains all sorts of subtle devices like the power button and battery.
  
== Distributions ==
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==Trivia==
=== Debian and derivatives ===
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* Linus Torvalds originally meant to call Linux "Freax". One of Linus' coworkers didn't like that name and uploaded the software to the FTP server as "Linux".
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* Linus was bitten by a penguin one time, and that is the reason that the logo of Linux is a penguin.
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==Distributions==
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===Debian and derivatives===
 
* [[Debian]]
 
* [[Debian]]
 
* [[Corel Linux]]
 
* [[Corel Linux]]
 
* [[Kali Linux]]
 
* [[Kali Linux]]
==== Ubuntu and derivatives ====
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====Ubuntu and derivatives====
 
* [[Ubuntu]]
 
* [[Ubuntu]]
 
* [[Kubuntu]]
 
* [[Kubuntu]]
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* [[elementary OS]]
 
* [[elementary OS]]
 
* [[Linspire]]
 
* [[Linspire]]
* [[Zorin OS]]
 
* [[Linux Lite]]
 
* [[Ubuntu Kylin]]
 
* [[Pop!_OS]]
 
* [[Ubuntu MATE]]
 
* [[Bodhi Linux]]
 
  
=== Fedora, Red Hat and derivatives ===
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===Fedora, Red Hat and derivatives===
 
* [[Fedora]]
 
* [[Fedora]]
 
* [[Red Hat]]
 
* [[Red Hat]]
 
* [[CentOS]]
 
* [[CentOS]]
  
=== Others ===
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===Others===
 
* [[Slackware]]
 
* [[Slackware]]
 
* [[Arch Linux]]
 
* [[Arch Linux]]
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* [[Android]]
 
* [[Android]]
  
== Trivia ==
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==See also==
* Linus Torvalds originally meant to call Linux "Freax". One of Linus' coworkers didn't like that name and uploaded the software to the FTP server as "Linux".
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*[[GNU]]
* Linus was bitten by a penguin one time, and that is the reason that the logo of Linux is a penguin.
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*[[X]]
 
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*[[Chrome OS]]
== See also ==
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*[[Virtual terminal]]
* [[GNU]]
 
* [[X]]
 
* [[Chrome OS]]
 
* [[Virtual terminal]]
 
  
 
[[Category:Linux]]
 
[[Category:Linux]]
 
[[Category:Operating systems]]
 
[[Category:Operating systems]]

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